We spend most of our time looking ahead and above, but how often do we really look down? Well, if you're a geo-physicist, or a geo-scientist, then you probably spend a lot of time looking down, since so much of what we know about our planet is what we find beneath its surface. Geo-science is defined as the study of the earth's surface as well as what's below it, and so much of what we have today -- water, oil, gold -- comes from below it, and we have our scientists to thank for that.
Underground exploration and other types of excavations are done using very specific tools, such as drills that create deep boreholes below the surface, and special meters that can detect electrical and magnetic activity. Scientists actually use boreholes and electricity to find underground water and oil sources - boreholes are drilled several meters apart and down; electrodes are inserted into each borehole, and then electricity is conducted between them. The resulting graphs that are generated show what the electrical current has bounced off of or gone through - such as a deep well that is bubbling with oil. Geo-scientists can then decide whether or not to dig, and how to best approach an underground source. Sometimes excavation can be done from straight above, while other times equipment will have to come in at an angle in order to avoid upsetting delicate underground structures (such as fissures and caves).
Geo-science can also assist with the management of natural above-ground water sources, such as rivers and lakes. If man-made dams need to be built or repaired, the use of geophysical equipment can assist with planning out a damn, setting up its foundation, and then proceeding to damn up the water in desired places. The study of our planet's surfaces and sub-surfaces is an old one, and it's a study that will continue for hundreds of years. So much of our planet has yet to be explored. Thankfully, as technology continues to evolve, so do the tools that are used. You can visit this website to learn about some of the tools used. Today's tools include earth imaging equipment and resistivity measuring equipment. These and other pieces of equipment combine with today's wireless technology to provide scientists with valuable knowledge about the planet we live on.